Active (real-time) storage replication is usually implemented by distributing updates of a block device to several physical hard disks. This way, any file system supported by the operating system can be replicated without modification, as the file system code works on a level above the block device driver layer. It is implemented either in hardware (in a disk array controller) or in software (in a device driver).

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The most basic method is disk mirroring, typical for locally connected disks. The storage industry narrows the definitions, so mirroring is a local (short-distance) operation. A replication is extendable across a computer network, so the disks can be located in physically distant locations, and the master-slave database replication model is usually applied. The purpose of replication is to prevent damage from failures or disasters that may occur in one location, or in case such events do occur, improve the ability to recover. For replication, latency is the key factor because it determines either how far apart the sites can be or the type of replication that can be employed.

The main characteristic of such cross-site replication is how write operations are handled:

 

  • Synchronous replication – guarantees “zero data loss” by the means of atomic write operation, i.e. write either completes on both sides or not at all. Write is not considered complete until acknowledgement by both local and remote storage. Most applications wait for a write transaction to complete before proceeding with further work, hence overall performance decreases considerably. Inherently, performance drops proportionally to distance, as latency is caused by speed of light. For 10 km distance, the fastest possible roundtrip takes 67 μs, whereas nowadays a whole local cached write completes in about 10-20 μs. An often-overlooked aspect of synchronous replication is the fact that failure of remote replica, or even just the interconnection, stops by definition any and all writes (freezing the local storage system). This is the behaviour that guarantees zero data loss. However, many commercial systems at such potentially dangerous point do not freeze, but just proceed with local writes, losing the desired zero recovery point objective. The main difference between synchronous and asynchronous volume replication is that synchronous replication needs to wait for the destination server in any write operation.
  • Asynchronous replication – write is considered complete as soon as local storage acknowledges it. Remote storage is updated, but probably with a small lag. Performance is greatly increased, but in case of losing a local storage, the remote storage is not guaranteed to have the current copy of data and most recent data may be lost.
  • Semi-synchronous replication – this usually means[citation needed] that a write is considered complete as soon as local storage acknowledges it and a remote server acknowledges that it has received the write either into memory or to a dedicated log file. The actual remote write is not performed immediately but is performed asynchronously, resulting in better performance than synchronous replication but offering no guarantee of durability.
  • Point-in-time replication – introduces periodic snapshots that are replicated instead of primary storage. If the replicated snapshots are pointer-based, then during replication only the changed data is moved not the entire volume. Using this method, replication can occur over smaller, less expensive bandwidth links such as iSCSI or T1 instead of fiber optic lines.

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